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International Business Machines (IBM)is an American multinational computer, technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States.IBM is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. The company which became IBM was founded in 1896 as the Tabulating Machine Company by Herman Hollerith, in Broome County, New York. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software (with a focus on t


The IBM 305 RAMAC, publicly announced on September 13, 1956 was the firstcommercial computer that used a moving head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage. RAMAC stood for "Random Access Method of Accounting and Control". Its design was motivated by the need for real-time accounting in business. The first RAMAC to be used in the US auto industry was installed at Chrysler's MOPAR Division in 1957. The 305 was one of the last vacuum tube computers that IBM built.

IBM 350

The IBM 350 is a disk storage unit announced by IBM as a component of the IBM 305 RAMAC computer system on September 13, 1956. Its design was motivated by the need for real time accounting in business. The 350 stored 5 million 7-bit characters (about 4.4 megabytes). It had fifty 24-inch (610 mm) diameter disks with 100 recording surfaces. Each surface had 100 tracks. The disks spun at 1200 RPM. Data transfer rate was 8,800 characters per second. An access mechanism moved a pair of he

IBM 610

The IBM 610 Auto-Point Computer was the first personal computer, in the sense of a computer to be used by one person and was controlled by a keyboard. The principal designer of this machine was John Lentz, as part of his workfor the Watson Lab at Columbia University. The IBM 610 was introduced in 1957. It was small enough to easily fit in an office. It was designed to be used in a normal office, without any special electrical or air conditioning requirements. It used vacuum tubes, a m

IBM 650

The IBM 650 was one of IBM's early computers, and the world's first mass-producedcomputer. It was announced in 1953, and over 2000 systems were produced between the first shipment in 1954 and its final manufacture in 1962. Support for the 650 and its component units was withdrawn in 1969. The 650 is a two-address, bi-quinary coded decimal machine (both data and addresses were decimal), with memory on a rotating drum. The 650 was specifically designed for users of existing IBM unit rec

IBM 701

The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29,1952, and was IBM's first commercial scientific computer . The system used electrostatic storage, consisting of 72 Williams tubes with a capacity of 1024 bits each, giving a total memory of 2048 words of 36 bits each. Memory could be expanded to a maximum of 4096 words of 36 bits by the addition of a second set of 72 Williams tubes or byreplacing the entire memory with magnetic

IBM 702

The IBM 702 was IBM's response to the UNIVAC—the first mainframe computerusing magnetic tapes. The 702 was aimed at business computing. The system used electrostatic storage, consisting of 14, 28, 42, 56, or 70 Williams tubes with a capacity of 1000 bits each for the main memory. The 702 was announced September 25, 1953 and withdrawn October 1, 1954, but the first production model was not installed until July 1955. The successor to the 702 in the 700/7000 series was the IBM 705, which

IBM 704

The IBM 704,the first mass-produced computer with floating point arithmetic hardware, was introduced by IBM in 1954. The 704 was significantly improved over the IBM 701 in terms of architecture as well as implementations which were not compatible with its predecessor. Changes from the 701 included the use of core memory (instead of Williams tubes) and addition of three index registers. To support these new features, the instructions were expanded to use the full 36- bit word. The new

IBM 727

The IBM 727 Magnetic Tape Unit was announced for the IBM 701 and IBM 702 on September 25, 1953. It became IBM's standard tape drive for their early vacuum tube era computer systems. Later vacuum tube machines and firstgeneration transistor computers used the IBM 729-series tape drive. The 727 was withdrawn on May 12, 1971. The tape had seven parallel tracks, six for data and one to maintain parity. Write protection was provided by a removable plastic ring in the back of the tape reel

IBM Portable Personal Computer

The IBM Portable Personal Computer 5155 model 68 was an early portable computer developed by IBM after the success of Compaq's suitcase-size portable machine (the Compaq Portable). It was released in February, 1984, and was eventually replaced by the IBM Convertible. The Portable was basically a PC/XT motherboard, transplanted into a Compaqstyle luggable case. The system featured 256 kibibytes of memory (expandable to 512 KiB), an added CGA card connected to an internal monochrome (a

IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. Alongside “microcomputer” and “home computer”, the term “personal computer” was already in use before 1981. It was used as early as 19

IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) was a mainframe computer system family first announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and sold between 1964 and 1978. It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. The design made a clear distinction between architectureand implementation, allowing IBM to release a suite of compatible designs at different prices. The System/360 models announced in 1964 ranged in speed


The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the nonprofit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management .


A small image displayed on the screen to represent an object that can be manipulated by the user. Icons serve as visual mnemonics and allow the user to control certain computer actions without having to remember commands or type them at the keyboard.


("I Seek You"). A chat program from Mirabilis. It can be set to notify the user when friends are online; it seeks out friends of the user so messages and files can be exchanged.

idle time

Time during which a machine is operational but not in use.


Internet Explorer. A graphical World-Wide Web browser from Microsoft. It can be downloaded from the Internet.


Information Engineering. The methods and technologies used to process information within an organization.

IEEE 1394 connector.

A type of connector that enables you to connect and disconnect high-speed serial devices. An IEEE 1394 connector is usually on the back of your computer near the serial port or the parallel port. If a device is IEEE 1394 compatible, you can connect the device to the IEEE 1394 connector while the computer is running and Windows will detect the device and inform you when it is ready for use. Similarly, you can unplug the device while the computer is running, but you should use the Add

IEEE 1394

A standard for high-speed serial devices such as digital video and digital audio editing equipment.

IIS Server Instance resource

A server-instance designation used with Internet Information Services (IIS) that supports the WWW and FTP services. IIS server instances are supported as cluster resources by a Resource DLL. IIS Server Instance resources may have dependencies on IP Address resources, Network Name resources, and Physical Disk resources. Access information for server instances does not fail over.


The ILLIAC IV was one of a series of research machines, the ILLIACs from the University of Illinois, the ILLIAC IV design featured fairly high parallelism with up to 256 processors, used to allow the machine to work on large data sets in what would later be known as vector processing. The machine was finally ready for operation in 1976, after a decade of development that was now massively late, massively over budget, and outperformed by existing commercial machines like the Cray-1. Th


Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using shared clients. The text is conveyed via devices connected over a network such as the Internet. IM enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicatein real time over the Internet, analogous to a telephone conversation but using text-based, not voice-based, communication.


The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its introduction in 1998.


A picture. Images on the computer are usually represented as bitmaps (raster graphics) or vector graphics.

image editor

A program that can be used to make changes in computer graphics. The program can be used to crop, enhance, paint, and filter scanned images. Adobe Photoshop is an example of an image editing tool. Some page layout programs such as Quark and Pagemaker allow image editing after the image has been imported.

Image Map

Typically, an image map is graphical representation (also known as "hot spots") containing predefined clickable hyperlinks. A good example of an image map would be a map containing clickable outlined images of each city. Once the user clicks the image, they are taken to a seperate web page containinginformation regarding that particular city.

Image Name

The name of a process as displayed in Task Manager.

Import media pool

A logical collection of data-storage media that has not been cataloged by Removable Storage. Media in an import media pool should be cataloged as soon as possible so that they can be used by an application.

In-addr.arpa domain

A special top-level DNS domain reserved for reverse mapping of IP addresses to DNS host names.

Incremental backup

A backup that copies only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. It marks files as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is cleared). If you use a combination of normal and incremental backups to restore your data, you will need to have the last normal backup and all incremental backup sets.

Incremental zone transfer (IXFR).

An alternate query type that can be used by some DNS servers to update and synchronize zone data when a zone is changed. When incremental zone transfer is supported between DNS servers, servers can keep track of and transfer only those incremental resource record changes between each version of the zone.

Independent client

A computer with Message Queuing installed that can host queues and store messages locally. Independent clients do not require synchronous access to a Message Queuing server to send and receive messages, but they can use Message Queuing servers with routing enabled for efficient message routing.

Infrared (IR)

Light that is beyond red in the color spectrum. While the light is not visible to the human eye, infrared transmitters and receivers can send and receive infrared signals.

Infrared Data Association (IrDA)

The industry organization of computer, component, and telecommunications vendors who establish the standards for infrared communication between computers and peripheral devices, such as printers.

Infrared device

A computer, computer peripherals such as a printer, or any other device that can communicate using infrared light.

infrared file transfer

Wireless file transfer between a computer and another computer or device using infrared light.

Infrared network connection

.A direct or incoming network connection to a remote access server using an infrared port.

Infrared port

An optical port on a computer that enables communication with other computers or devices by using infrared light, without cables. Infrared ports can be found on some portable computers, printers, mobile phones and cameras.

Infrastructure master

The domain controller assigned to update group-to-user references whenever group memberships are changed, and to replicate these changes to any other domain controllers in the domain. At any time, there can be only one infrastructure master in a particular domain.


A mechanism that allows a given access control entry (ACE) to be copied from the container where it was applied to all children of the container. Inheritance can be combined with delegation to grant administrative rights to a whole subtree of the directory in a single update operation.

Inherited permissions.

Permissions on an object that are automatically inherited from its parent object. Inherited permissions cannot be modified.

Initial master

A shared folder whose existing files and folders are replicated to other shared folders when replication is initially configured. After replication is complete, there is no initial master, since any of the replicas can accept changes and propagate them to the other replicas. The initial master then becomes another replica


In Disk Management, the process of detecting a disk or volume and assigning it a status (for example, healthy) and a type (for example, dynamic).

Initiate to Application Enable

When checked, new connections to the DDE share are allowed. When cleared, only current DDE conversations are allowed.


An option in Windows that allows you to enter text in handwritten form. Instead of converting your handwritten text to typed text, the text is converted to an object and displayed exactly as you wrote it.

input device

A peripheral device that is used to enter commands or information into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, joystick, modem, scanner, or touch screen.

Input language

The specification of the language you want to type in. Some programs that are designed for Windows recognize this setting. When you add a new input language, a keyboard layout for that language is also added.

Input Method Editor (IME)

Programs used to enter the thousands of different characters in written Asianlanguages with a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words. As the user enters keystrokes, the IME engine attempts to identify which character or characters the keystrokes should be converted into.

Input/output (I/O) port

A channel through which data is transferred between a device and the microprocessor. The port appears to the microprocessor as one or more memory addresses that it can use to send or receive data.

Insertion point

The place where text will be inserted when typed. The insertion point usually appears as a flashing vertical bar in an application's window or in a dialog box


1) When referring to software, to add program files and folders to your hard disk and related data to your registry so that the software runs properly. Installing contrasts with upgrading, where existing program files, folders, and registry entries are updated to a more recent version. 2) When referring to hardware, to physically connect the device to your computer, to load device drivers onto your computer, and to configure device properties and settings.

Integrated device electronics (IDE)

A type of disk-drive interface in which the controller electronics reside on the drive itself, eliminating the need for a separate adapter card. IDE offers advantages such as look-ahead caching to increase overall performance.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

A digital phone line used to provide higher bandwidth. An ISDN line must be installedby the phone company at both the calling site and the called site.

interactive dialog box

A dialog box that requires a response from the user. Intermediary devices such as a security host require such a dialog box as an added layer of security between the client and the remote access server. In such dialog boxes, the user types an access code or a user name and password on the remote access terminal screen.

Interactive logon.

A network logon from a computer keyboard, when the user types information in the Logon Information dialog box displayed by the computer's operating system.


A private network that connects nodes in a cluster.


A shared boundary where two or more systems meet; or the means by which communication is achieved at this boundary. An interface can be between hardware and hardware (such as sockets and plugs, or electrical signals), hardware and software, software and software, human and computer (such as a mouse or keyboard and display screen). The term "interface" often refer to a user interface. This is any type of point where two different things come together. Most often, the term is used to de


A display technique that enables a monitor to provide more resolution inexpensively. With interlacing monitors, the electron guns draw only half the horizontal lines with each pass (for example, all odd lines on one pass and all even lines on the next pass). Because an interlacing monitor refreshes only half the lines at one time, it can display twice as many lines per refresh cycle, giving it greater resolution. Another way of looking at it is that interlacing provides the same resolu


A recording method that reduces data errors during playback. Instead of the file beingwritten in a contiguous data stream, the data sectors are intermixed along the recording track. If a disc have a smudge or scratch, the entire data file is generally recoverable because a smaller amount of the file data is affected.

Intermediary device

.A device other than a modem or X.25 PAD, located between a network connection and the remote access server. This device is typically a modem-pool switch or security host and requires either a static or interactive dialog box between the client and itself.

Internal network number.

A 4-byte hexadecimal number used for addressing and routing purposes. The internal network number identifies a virtual network inside a computer. The internal network number must be unique to the IPX internetwork. Internal network number is also called virtual network number.

International Telecommunication Union- Telecommunication [Standardization Sector] (ITU-T).

Th e s e c t o r o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunication Union (ITU) responsible for telecommunication standards. ITU-T replaces the Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et Telephonique (CCITT). Its responsibilities include standardizing modem design and operations, and standardizing protocols for networks and facsimile transmission. ITU is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and servi


1)Two or more network segments connected by routers. Another term for internetwork. 2)Internet. A worldwide network of computers. the Internet. The protocol used to route a data packet from its source to its destination over the Internet.

Internet Protocol security (IPSec).

A set of industry-standard, cryptographybased protection services and protocols. IPSec protects all protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite and Internet communications using L2TP.

Internet service provider (ISP)

A company that provides individuals or companies access to the Internet and the World Wide Web. An ISP provides a telephone number, a user name, a password, and other connection information so users can connect their computers to the ISP's computers. An ISP typically charges a monthly or hourly connection fee. Internet Video Phone. An application from Intel that lets you talk to others across the Internet using both audio and video.

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).

A network protocol native to NetWare that controls addressing and routing of packets within and between LANs. IPX does not guarantee that a message will be complete (no lost packets).

Interrupt request (IRQ) lines.

Hardware lines over which devices can sendsignals to get the attention of the processor when the device is ready to accept or send information. Each device must have a unique IRQ line.


A request for attention from the processor. When the processor receives an interrupt, it suspends its current operations, saves the status of its work, and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler, which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt. A signal informing a program that an event has occurred. When a program receives an interrupt signal, it takes a specified action (which can be to ignore the sign

Intersite messaging service (ISM).

A service that supports transports for asynchronous, site-to-site messaging. Each transport serves two major roles: send/receive and topology queries (such as,what are the various sites connected by this transport, and at what cost?). The intersite messaging services shipped in Windows are RPC and SMTP (mail).


A network within an organization that uses Internet technologies and protocols, but is available only to certain people, such as employees of a company. An intranet is also called a private network.


Input/Output. The sending and retrieving of information into the memory of a program, usually to and from a file or a peripheral device.

I/O address

Input/Output address. A unique address given to a peripheral device for input and output; on a PC, the I/O address is in the form of a threedigit hexademical number.

I/O area

A memory area that temporarily holds data from an input device, or data which will be sent to an output device.

I/O device

Input/Output device. A device that is used to transfer data into or out of the computer; also called peripheral device.

IP Address resource.

A 32-bit number in dotted decimal format that represents an Internet Protocol (IP) address and is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL provided with Windows.

IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Thedesigners of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to


The iPod is a portable music player developed by Apple Computer. Though it is an Apple product, the iPod can be used with both Macs and PCs. The iTunes software, also created by Apple, is used to organize and transfer songs and playlists to the iPod. Both iTunes and the iPod support a wide variety of audio formats, including MP3, AAC, WAV, and AIFF. MP3 is the most common audio compression format, while AAC is the format used by the iTunes Music Store. WAV and AIFF are nearly identica


Transport protocols used in Novell NetWare networks, which together correspond to the ombination of TCP and IP in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Windows implements IPX through NWLink.


Stands for "Interrupt Request." PCs use interrupt requests to manage various hardware operations. Devices such as sound cards, modems, and keyboards can all send interrupt requests to the processor. For example, when the modem needs to run a process, it sends an interrupt request to the CPU. The CPU then interrupts its current job to let the modem run its process. It is important to assign different IRQ addresses to different hardware devices because the interrupt request signals run

ISA expansion slot.

A connection socket for a peripheral designed to the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) on a computer motherboard.


(Integrated Services Digital Network).A high-speed digital telephone service that can dramatically increase the speed at which you connect to the Internet or to your corporate LAN (local area network). ISDN can operate at 128 kilobytes per second (Kbps), which is five or more times faster than many analog modems. Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN is a public global network capable of transmitting voice, data and images at speeds up to 2 Mbit/s. The digital technique can trans


Stands for "International Organization for Standardization.” The ISO works with standards institutes from over 150 countries to develop technology and product standards. These standards lead to a more efficient, safer, and cleaner development of products. It also leads to more standardized products for consumers. example, the ISO 9660 standard defines a file system used by CD-ROM media. CDs formatted using this standard can be used on any operating system that supports the ISO 9660 s


Internet service provider


Stands for "Information Technology," and is pronounced "I.T." It now refers to anything related to computing technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet, or the people that work with these technologies. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the computers, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses. IT jobs include computer programming, network administration, computer engineering, Web development, technical support, and many other relate


A type style with slightly slanted characters, used for emphasis. Best used to set off quotes, special phrases, and foreign words, italic letters have a redesigned structure that allows them to slant to the right.


iTunes is an audio playback program developed by Apple Computer. You can use iTunes to import songs from CDs as well as other audio files from your hard drive. The program can also download songs (for a small fee) from the iTunes Music Store. While songs are the most common files played by iTunes, you can also play spoken word files, such as audio books or other recordings. iTunes also has a radio option that allows you to play live streams of Internet radio from a variety of stations

Ivan Sutherland

Ivan Edward Sutherland is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer. He received the Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1988 for the invention of Sketchpad, an early predecessor to the sort of graphical user interface. Sketchpad could accept constraints and specified relationships among segments and arcs, including the diameter of arcs. It could draw both horizontal and vertical lines and combine them into figures and shapes. Figures could be copie


Stands for "Interactive Voice Response." IVR is a telephony technology that can read a combination of touch tone and voice input. It gives users the ability to access a database of information via phone. A typical IVR system has several menus of prerecorded options that the caller can choose from. While many choices are as basic as choosing a number, some options may require the caller to speak detailed information such as his name or account number. This input is read by the IVR syst


iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.

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